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  同步课程 - 英语 - 高考英语 - 浏览课程 - 独家解密!英语阅读理解  
独家解密!英语阅读理解
http://www.ksbs.cn  2007/11/23 8:20:42  浏览人次:6042
    命题特点

    高考英语阅读理解题型的分值要占高考英语总分的40/150,是所有题型中占分比例最大的一道题。阅读理解能否得高分,是成绩好坏的关键。阅读理解题的考查主要是从两个方面测试考生的理解能力。
    1. 客观理解:即对所给材料中具体事实和细节的理解。
    2. 主观理解:即通过阅读短文,对文中主旨、主题、中心思想和作者意图、态度及语篇逻辑关系等深层意义上的理解,并据此进行推理和判断。

    错题攻略

    易错题型一  归纳概括主题
    典例1  (2007年广东卷)Which of the following can be the best title of this passage?
    A. How to Live Truthfully
    B. Importance of Peacefulness
    C. Ways of Gaining Self-respect
    D. Happiness through Honorable Actions
    【命题意图】  归纳概括中心主旨的题目是高考必考题目,考查考生通过理解、总结、归纳,找出文章中心意思的能力。
    【解题思路】  正确答案为D。做这类试题要求考生不仅要区分主要信息和次要信息,跳出一词一句,俯瞰全文,找出主题句(一般来说在文章的句首与句尾),而且要善于概括文章的中心思想(通常是一个完整的句子,能全面准确地概括文章的中心主旨)。通常最佳题目可以是一个短语词组,它不仅能概括文章的中心主旨,还有吸引读者、引发阅读兴趣的任务。
    【失分警示】  解答此类阅读理解题时,考生一定要注意运用找主题句的阅读方法,留意文章句首和句尾的主题句。如文章中没有主题句,则要把所有的细节综合起来,进行逻辑推理,概括归纳出文章的中心大意。
  
    易错题型二  逻辑推理判断
    典例2  (2007年浙江卷)What do we learn from this text?
    A. What ones says reflects how one feels.
    B. Aphasics have richer feelings than others.
    C. Normal people often tell lies in their speeches.
    D. People poor at one thing can be good at another.
    【命题意图】  考试说明中关于高考阅读理解能力测试的第四点要求是:“能理解某句某段的意义,并能把握全篇文脉,即句与句、段与段的关系,并能据此进行推理和判断。”
    【解题思路】  正确答案为D。这类考题旨在测试考生在阅读基础上的逻辑推理能力,即根据文章所述事件的逻辑关系,对未说明的趋势或结局作出合理的推断;或根据作者所阐述的观点理论,对文章未涉及的现象、事例给以解释。考生要仔细阅读短文,了解完整的信息,才能准确把握作者观点。
    在进行推理、判断时,考生一定要依据短文内容或作者观点,切忌主观臆断,切忌以自己的观点看法取代作者的原意。
    【失分警示】  解答此类阅读理解题时,考生不仅要了解文章的大意,吃透文章的精神,摸清文中的细节,更要对文章进行必要的归纳,领会作者的意图,并进行合理的常识性推断及逻辑推理。
  
    易错题型三  领悟文章的隐含意义
    典例3  (2007年浙江卷)From the dialogue between the boy and his mother, we learn that the mother was _______.
    A. excited          B. interested
    C. ashamed         D. disappointed
    【命题意图】  考试说明中关于高考阅读理解能力测试的第三点要求是:“既理解字面意思,也理解深层含义,包括作者的态度,意图等。” 即作者没有鲜明地表达自己的观点,而将其隐含在字里行间,流露于修辞手法之中。
    【解题思路】  正确答案为D。这类考题要求考生对于作者没有明确说明的写作目的、立场态度、思想倾向等作出合理的推断。这种“言外之意,弦外之音”要求考生有“锣鼓听音”的敏锐感觉,合理推断的思维品质。
    【失分警示】  解答此类阅读理解题时,考生要透过文章字面意思领悟其隐含意义和深层意义,这就需要仔细地阅读和认真地思考,在通篇理解文章的基础上领会作者的言外之意。

实战演习
(定时:30mins,每小题2分,共40分,得分:_____分)
    阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最佳选项。
A
    Lifeguard, sportscaster, movie star, governor, president——there wasn’t much Ronald Reagan didn’t do in life.
    “The world was a vast opportunity for him,” Lou Cannon wrote in his biography(传记) of the former US president, who died on June 5, aged 93.
    Reagan’s final years saw him fight a losing battle against Alzheimer’s disease(老年痴呆症). But his positive attitude toward life has given hope to many people.
    Born in 1911 to a poor family in a small town in Illinois, his father was a failed salesman who drank too much. It was in these difficult times, though, that Reagan developed the powerful optimism(乐观) that would serve him so well. He always believed better times laying ahead, and this was reflected in his high school yearbook entry. “Life is one grand, sweet song, so start the music,” he wrote.
    As a teenager, Reagan spent summers working as a lifeguard at a local beach, saving 77 lives in seven years. He graduated from college in 1932 with a degree in economics and sociology. But America was still in the middle of the Great Depression, and jobs were hard to find. Reagan finally found work as a radio sports announcer and this road led him to Hollywood in 1937.
    During the 20 year film career, he never became a leading star. As in his lifeguard days, Reagan loved to play the hero and only took the role of a bad guy once in more than 50 films.
    A talented speaker who was always able to connect with his audience, Reagan became involved in politics in the 1950s. This popular touch led to him being elected the governor of California in 1967.
    All the while Reagan was in California, he had his eye on the White House. In 1980, aged 69, he became the oldest man ever elected president.
    He held office from 1981 to 1989, the first president to serve two complete terms after World War Ⅱ. When he left, aged 77, he held the highest popularity rate of any retiring president in US history.
    He remained positive even when he discovered he had an illness that would destroy him. “I will leave with the greatest love for this country of ours and eternal(永恒的) optimism for its future,” he wrote.
  
1. Reagan can be best described as a man with ______.
A. firmness  B. humour   C. optimism  D. talent
2. What didn’t Reagan do in his life time?
A. Playing the role of a bad guy.
B. Being a leading star of the film.
C. Saving people’s lives.
D. Working as a radio sports announcer.
3. Which is the correct order of events described in the passage?
a. Reagan fought a losing battle against Alzheimer’s disease.
b. Reagan became an actor.
c. Reagan worked as a lifeguard.
d. Reagan graduated from college.
e. Reagan was elected the governor of California.
A. a, c, d, e ,b    B. e, c, d, b, a
C. b, a, c, d, e     D. c, d, b, e, a
4. When the author of Reagan’s biography says “The world was a vast opportunity for him,” he really means that _______.
A. Reagan achieved much in his whole life
B. Reagan could have done much better
C. Reagan did much for America and the world
D. Reagan was a very lucky man

B
    His feet had touched the ground again, but South African Mike Melvill’s head was still high above the clouds.
    Seeing the earth from the edge of space was “an amazing experience”, said the 63-year-old pilot It was more than a personal experience. Melvill and his rocket plane Space Ship One made history last Monday when it became the first private manned flight to reach space.
    The spacecraft was carried by a jet until it reached a height of 14kilometers. Then it separated from the jet and continued its journey beyond the earth’s atmosphere. The craft reached space by traveling at three times the speed of sound.
    On board, Mevill was able to see the earth. He also became weightless for about 3 minutes when the craft reached its highest altitude of 100 kilometers. He even opened a bag of colorful chocolate sweets to see if they would float around in the cockpit(驾驶员座舱) —— they did.
    The successful flight brought the design team, led by famous American designer Burt Rutan, closer to winning the US10 million Ansari X Prize. The award will be given to the first privately funded(投资) spacecraft to send three people 100 kilometers above the earth. The spacecraft also has to land safely and repeat the achievement within two weeks.
    This is to prove that the craft is reliable and has the ability to carry paying customers. “The flight opens a new chapter in history, putting space within the reach of ordinary citizens,” said Patti Smith, head of commercial space transportation at the US Federal Aviation Administration.
    It’s hoped that this flight is the first step toward space tourism. Members of the public could pay US$20,000-100,000 for the chance to fly high above the earth’s atmosphere, float in zero gravity and take in the sights of space.
    Rutan thinks that affordable space flights will be possible within the next 10 to 15 years. And that’s just the beginning. “We are heading into orbit sooner than you think,” he said.
    “We do not intend to stay in low-earth orbit for ages. The next 25 years will be a wild ride… one that history will note was done for the benefit of everyone.”

5. The story is about___________.
A. a successful flight into pace
B. the beginning of affordable space flights
C. competition for commercial space transportation
D. the first private rocket plane
6. According to Burt Rutan, what is likely to happen?
A. He’ll win the Ansari X Prize.
B. A space flight will cost much less than 100,000.
C. In a few decades, private space craft will travel high in space.
D. The Space Ship One will make another flight within two weeks.
7. The fact that chocolate sweets could float proves ____.
A. the spacecraft was flying faster than sound
B. Mevill was in space
C. Mevill was high above the earth
D. there was a strong wind
8. The title of this passage is _________.
A. Walk in space
B. The first private manned spaceship reached space successfully
C. The first spaceship
D. A manned spaceship reached space successfully


C
    An American researcher has developed a simple device to help people stop snoring. The device limits the movements of the tissues(组织) that cause the unpopular sound. Snoring is a common problem. It may prevent a person from getting enough sleep. It may also prevent enough oxygen from reaching heart and lungs during sleep. But for most people, snoring affects relations with another person who must sleep in the back room.
    Snoring happens when the sleeping person breathes with the mouth open. In the back of the mouth the tissues surrounding the entrance of the throat are soft. As the person breathes, the movement of the air around the soft tissues causes them to move or vibrate. This tissue movement causes the sound we call snoring. A number of possible solutions have been proposed. Some devices keep the mouth shut. They force the patient to breathe only through the nose. A medical operation is also possible. Other devices catch the sound of snoring and then wake the patient. The new anti-snoring device was developed by a dentist, George Wagner of the Indian University School of Dentistry. He developed a piece of plastic that fits up against the inside of the mouth. The device keeps the soft tissues from vibrating and making the snoring noise. It is worn only at night. Doctor Wagner said that the simple device has ended several patients’ snoring problem in a simple way.
9. The underlined word“snoring”(in paragraph 1) probably means ____.
A. speaking while one sleeps
B. dreaming while on sleeps
C. noises made while on sleeps
D. sighs given while one sleeps
10. Snoring happens ____.
A. when dreaming at night ,even during the day
B. when breathing with one’s mouth closed
C. when sleeping with one’s mouth open
D. when being poor in health
11. From the passage we know that the simplest and more efficient way to prevent a person from snoring is ____.
A. to keep the soft tissues from vibrating
B. to give the patient a medical operation
C. to wake him/her up as soon as he/she snores
D. to make him/her listen to the sound of snoring

D
    Vienna——In spite of Iraq’s decision to stop oil deliveries, the 11- nation Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries(OPEC)will not increase production to make up the shortfall, ministers decided Tuesday in Vienna.
    The 11 oil ministers decided to meet again on July 3 to discuss the effects of the Iraq temporary stop. The organization’s president, Charkid Kheria of Algeria, said after the meeting that stocks were high and prices were stable, so quota increases were not necessary.
    The E.U. Commission has expressed concern about Iraq’s output stop. A speaker said OPEC had to take all possible measures to keep or lower the oil price.
    Saudi Arabia’s Oil Minister Ali Al-Nuaimi had earlier said there would not be any shortfall of oil in the market. The organization had already taken steps to fill the gap, he said. OPEC Secretary General Ali Rodriguez added that the period of Iraq’s output stop was not known, so other exporters were not going to lift quotas yet. If the market was destabilized(使……动摇), a suitable response could be made.
    Iraq on Monday stopped shipments of crude oil to protest against the U.N. Security Council’s decision to extend the oil-for-food programme by only a month, instead of the normal six-month renewal. Just before the Vienna meeting, oil prices had gone up, with a barrel of OPEC crude oil selling for 27.05 dollars, up from 26.81 dollars last Friday. North sea oil was at 29.26 dollars Monday evening.
    OPEC wants the oil price to stay within a margin of 22 to 28 dollars and achieved that with cuts in January and March that reduced 2.5 million barrels per day off quotas(配额).

12. Iraq made the decision to stop oil deliveries because ___________.
A. oil price is too low in international market.
B. The U.N. Secretary Council has decided to shorten the time of extension of the oil-for-food programme
C. Many oil wells were destroyed during the war in the late 1980s
D. It couldn’t get enough money to develop its economy
13. The attitude the E.U. Commission took towards Iraq’s output stop is ________.
A. active           B. concerned
C. cold             D. surprised
14. The underlined words“The organization”here refers to ________.
A. OPEC        B. the E.U. Commission
C. Vienna        D. WTO
15. The main idea of the passage is ________.
A. the oil prices in the world were stable though Iraq has stopped oil deliveries
B. OPEC has controlled the oil price to stay within a margin of 22 to 28 dollars
C. OPEC will not increase oil production to make up the shortfall that caused by Iraq
D. Oil is connected with people’s daily life
16. The 11 oil ministers decided to meet on July 3 so that _________.
A. they can persuade Iraq to continue oil production
B. they can have a talk with the U.N. Security Council
C. they can have a discussion about the effects of Iraq’s temporary output stop
D. they can make up their minds to increase oil production

E
    The best advice young men and women can hear these days is not “Get Rich”. It’s “Go West”.
    Those who hope to make their fortunes or, at the very least, find good jobs or life long careers have a better chance of doing so in China’s western provinces than in the increasingly crowded eastern cities.  Along the eastern coast, cities are filled with newcomers looking for work. They seek anything from the lowest-level unskilled jobs to the instant-millionaire Internet chance of lifetime. Few have found the latter, and few ever will.
    Some 160 years ago, young men and women streamed into New York, Philadelphia, Boston——the United States’ equivalent of China’s Shanghai, Guangzhou and Beijing. All of these young people were searching for work, for riches; for fame. Few found any of that. The rest joined the masses working hard at low-level jobs trying to support themselves and their families.
    Horace Greeley, a well-known American newspaper editor of the period had sound advice for those seeking work. “Do not,” Greeley said, “lounge (to stand or sit in a lazy manner) in the cities! There is room and health in the country, away from the crowds of idles (people who waste time doing nothing) and imbeciles (a person of weak mind). Go West …”
    In the mid-19th century, when Greeley issued his call to go west, America was about to develop its western regions——much as China is today. Out west, the unemployed could find jobs.
    What was needed then in the America West is what is needed now in China’s western regions; men and women with determination to make something of themselves, men and women with skills in any developing nation must have to survive and prosper.
    It has nothing to do with the Internet. It has nothing to do with becoming a movie star, pop music idol, or a Bill Gates clone. It has everything to do with reality.

17. Why does the author think“Go West” is the best advice for young people in China?
A. If they go west, they are sure to get rich.
B. China’s west is richer than its east.
C. Eastern cities are too crowded to live in.
D. There are more chances of success there than in the east.
18. The author mentions young America of the 19th century because
A. he wants young Chinese to learn from them
B. he tries to show how they succeeded in the eastern cities
C. they were poor examples for today’s young Chinese to follow
D. most of them preferred to work in the west
19. The underlined word “sound” in the 4th paragraph means
A. what may be heard
B. seem when heard
C. produce a sound
D. based on truth or good judgment
20. What is needed in China’s west now according to the writer?
A. The Internet.         B. Movie stars.
C. People with skills.        D. Pop music idols.

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